Test of Written Language 4 (TOWL-4)
by Donald D. Hammill and Stephen C. Larsen
This comprehensive, norm-referenced test of written expression is now available in a fully updated Fourth Edition. The TOWL-4 can be used to:
- Identify students who write poorly and need special help
- Determine writing strengths and weaknesses
- Document progress in special writing programs
Like the previous edition, the TOWL-4 assesses the conventional, linguistic, and conceptual aspects of writing. It includes seven subtests---five using contrived formats and two requiring spontaneous writing samples.
Writing sentences that incorporate given stimulus words
Writing sentences from dictation, making proper use of spelling rules
Writing sentences from dictation, making proper use of punctuation and capitalization rules
- Logical Sentences
Editing illogical sentences so that they make better sense
- Sentence Combining
Integrating the meaning of short sentences into single, grammatically correct sentences
- Contextual Conventions
Writing a story in response to a stimulus picture and earning points for satisfying specific orthographic and grammatical requirements
- Story Composition
Writing a story that is evaluated for vocabulary, plot, prose, character development, and interest to the reader
Individually administered in 60 to 90 minutes, the TOWL-4 can be used with students aged 9-0 to 17-11. Equivalent forms (A and B) are available to simplify pre- and posttesting.
The test provides percentiles, standard scores, age equivalents, and grade equivalents for each subtest. In addition, three Composite Scores are available: Overall Writing, Contrived Writing, and Spontaneous Writing. Norms, based on an age- and grade-stratified sample of 2,505 individuals from 18 states, reflect the demographic characteristics of the U.S. population.
Studies reported in the Manual document the predictive validity of the TOWL-4 and demonstrate that the test is unbiased relative to gender and race. The TOWL-4 is extremely helpful to professionals who assess and treat writing deficits.